Pheromones play an important role in the animal kingdom

Pheromones play an important role in the animal kingdom at controlling communicatin and regulating sex amongst the same species. Thanks to pheromones, humans can increase the same exciting effects which include more dates, more women, and greater chances of getting laid. But first, let’s talk about pheromones in bees. The swarm preparation the workers harrass the queen, making her move about the comb more and reducing court formation . The presence of alarm pheromones in a colony possibly changes the behaviour of workers toward their queen. Annual cycle of queen cell building Nearly all colonies possess queen cell cups throughout the period of the year when queen rearing is likely to occur, but only a small proportion are ever used to rear queens. In fact the formation of queen cups appears to be a normal part of colony development and does not necessarily indicate that any occupied queen cells will be present subsequently (Simpson, 1959; Allen, 1965b; Caron, 1979).  Learn more at

Perhaps workers need to mark them with a pheromone before the queen will lay in them. Allen (l965b) found that in Scotland yearly averages of 90—100% of colonies produced queen cell cups, 5—70°/o had queen cells containing larvae, and O—28% produced closed queen cells. Colonies began to produce queen cell cups in the beginning of May, and reached a yearly maximum (4-24 per colony) in late June and early July. Queen cell cups were first converted into queen cells for rearing queen larvae in late May and early June and the numbers converted per colony reached a yearly peak (from 0 to 6) from late June to the third week in July. Closed queen cells (means of only 0-1 per colony), containing pupae or spinning larvae, occurred at the beginning of July. Hence queen rearing was abortive in most colonies: more than twice as many colonies produced occupied queen cells as replaced their mature queens. Colonies producing the fewest queen cells, and which spent the least time queen rearing, were the least likely to produce adult queens. Learn more at

Pheromone inhibitory effect of queen cells It is probable, but not proven, that the number of queen cells a colony builds generally increases with its population and is an approximate measure of its queen pheromone deficiency. Because only a limited number of occupied queen cells are present at a time in a colony it has been supposed that immature queens produce pheromones that might inhibit queenless colonies from producing additional queen cells (Butler, 1957a; Jay, 1968); this has been demonstrated only recently. Boch (1979) found that providing small, queenless colonies each with a closed queen cell greatly diminished production of further queen cells compared to queenless control colonies, but providing them with an open queen cell containing a larva appeared ineffectual. Later experiments (Free et al., 1984a) in which five occupied queen cells were introduced to each queenless colony demonstrated that open queen cells as well as closed queen cells can use more pheromones. Learn more at


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